各种 ecc 曲线

背景知识

椭圆曲线有如下的形式:

第一种:

$E: y^2 \equiv x^3 + ax + b \mod{p}$

曲线的参数共有 $(p, a, b, G, n, h)$。$G$ 是一个点 $(G_x, G_y)$,$n$ 是 $G$ 的阶。

第二种:

$E: y^2+xy=x^3+ax^2+1$

称为 Kbolitz curve。不同的曲线有不同的参数 $(m,f(x),a,b,G,n,h)$ ,对应不同的 $GF(2^m)$ 域。

OpenSSL

看一下 openssl 支持的曲线参数(openssl ecparam -list_curves):

  secp112r1 : SECG/WTLS curve over a 112 bit prime field
  secp112r2 : SECG curve over a 112 bit prime field
  secp128r1 : SECG curve over a 128 bit prime field
  secp128r2 : SECG curve over a 128 bit prime field
  secp160k1 : SECG curve over a 160 bit prime field
  secp160r1 : SECG curve over a 160 bit prime field
  secp160r2 : SECG/WTLS curve over a 160 bit prime field
  secp192k1 : SECG curve over a 192 bit prime field
  secp224k1 : SECG curve over a 224 bit prime field
  secp224r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 224 bit prime field
  secp256k1 : SECG curve over a 256 bit prime field
  secp384r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 384 bit prime field
  secp521r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 521 bit prime field
  prime192v1: NIST/X9.62/SECG curve over a 192 bit prime field
  prime192v2: X9.62 curve over a 192 bit prime field
  prime192v3: X9.62 curve over a 192 bit prime field
  prime239v1: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit prime field
  prime239v2: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit prime field
  prime239v3: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit prime field
  prime256v1: X9.62/SECG curve over a 256 bit prime field
  sect113r1 : SECG curve over a 113 bit binary field
  sect113r2 : SECG curve over a 113 bit binary field
  sect131r1 : SECG/WTLS curve over a 131 bit binary field
  sect131r2 : SECG curve over a 131 bit binary field
  sect163k1 : NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 163 bit binary field
  sect163r1 : SECG curve over a 163 bit binary field
  sect163r2 : NIST/SECG curve over a 163 bit binary field
  sect193r1 : SECG curve over a 193 bit binary field
  sect193r2 : SECG curve over a 193 bit binary field
  sect233k1 : NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 233 bit binary field
  sect233r1 : NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 233 bit binary field
  sect239k1 : SECG curve over a 239 bit binary field
  sect283k1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 283 bit binary field
  sect283r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 283 bit binary field
  sect409k1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 409 bit binary field
  sect409r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 409 bit binary field
  sect571k1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 571 bit binary field
  sect571r1 : NIST/SECG curve over a 571 bit binary field
  c2pnb163v1: X9.62 curve over a 163 bit binary field
  c2pnb163v2: X9.62 curve over a 163 bit binary field
  c2pnb163v3: X9.62 curve over a 163 bit binary field
  c2pnb176v1: X9.62 curve over a 176 bit binary field
  c2tnb191v1: X9.62 curve over a 191 bit binary field
  c2tnb191v2: X9.62 curve over a 191 bit binary field
  c2tnb191v3: X9.62 curve over a 191 bit binary field
  c2pnb208w1: X9.62 curve over a 208 bit binary field
  c2tnb239v1: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit binary field
  c2tnb239v2: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit binary field
  c2tnb239v3: X9.62 curve over a 239 bit binary field
  c2pnb272w1: X9.62 curve over a 272 bit binary field
  c2pnb304w1: X9.62 curve over a 304 bit binary field
  c2tnb359v1: X9.62 curve over a 359 bit binary field
  c2pnb368w1: X9.62 curve over a 368 bit binary field
  c2tnb431r1: X9.62 curve over a 431 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls1: WTLS curve over a 113 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls3: NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 163 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls4: SECG curve over a 113 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls5: X9.62 curve over a 163 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls6: SECG/WTLS curve over a 112 bit prime field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls7: SECG/WTLS curve over a 160 bit prime field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls8: WTLS curve over a 112 bit prime field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls9: WTLS curve over a 160 bit prime field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls10: NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 233 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls11: NIST/SECG/WTLS curve over a 233 bit binary field
  wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls12: WTLS curve over a 224 bit prime field
  Oakley-EC2N-3:
        IPSec/IKE/Oakley curve #3 over a 155 bit binary field.
        Not suitable for ECDSA.
        Questionable extension field!
  Oakley-EC2N-4:
        IPSec/IKE/Oakley curve #4 over a 185 bit binary field.
        Not suitable for ECDSA.
        Questionable extension field!
  brainpoolP160r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 160 bit prime field
  brainpoolP160t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 160 bit prime field
  brainpoolP192r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 192 bit prime field
  brainpoolP192t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 192 bit prime field
  brainpoolP224r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 224 bit prime field
  brainpoolP224t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 224 bit prime field
  brainpoolP256r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 256 bit prime field
  brainpoolP256t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 256 bit prime field
  brainpoolP320r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 320 bit prime field
  brainpoolP320t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 320 bit prime field
  brainpoolP384r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 384 bit prime field
  brainpoolP384t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 384 bit prime field
  brainpoolP512r1: RFC 5639 curve over a 512 bit prime field
  brainpoolP512t1: RFC 5639 curve over a 512 bit prime field
  SM2       : SM2 curve over a 256 bit prime field

这个列表很长,主要有几个参数:

  1. 什么域:素数域还是 $GF(2^m)$ 域
  2. 位数:域有多少位
  3. 标准:NIST/SECG/WTLS/X9.62/RFC 5639/SM2/Oakley 表示的是不同的标准

NIST

NIST 在 FIPS 186-4 中定义了基于素数域的 Curve P-192, Curve P-224, Curve P-256, Curve P-384 和 Curve P-521 。在 RFC5656 中,这几条曲线又名 nistp192 nistp224 nistp256 nistp384 和 nistp521 。

Curve P-192:

$p = 2^{192}-2^{64}-1$

Curve P-224:

$p=2^{224}-2^{96}-1$

Curve P-256:

$p=2^{256}-2^{224}+2^{192}+2^{96}-1$

Curve P-384:

$p=2^{384}-2^{128}-2^{96}+2^{32}-1$

Curve P-521:

$p=2^{521}-1$

另一类是基于 Binary Field ($GF(2^m)$)的曲线,有 Curve K-163,Curve B-163,Curve K-233,Curve B-233,Curve K-283,Curve B-283,Curve K-409,Curve B-409,Curve K-571,Curve B-571。相应地,RFC 5656 里又名 nistk163,nistk233,nistb233,nistk283,nistk409,nistb409,nistt571(我觉得是 nistb571/nistk571 ,不知道是不是写错了)

Degree 163 (K-163/B-163) :

$p(t)=t^{163}+t^7+t^6+t^3+1$

Degree 233 (K-233/B-233) :

$p(t)=t^{233}+t^{74}+1$

Degree 283 (K-283/B-283) :

$p(t)=t^{283}+t^{12}+t^7+t^5+1$

Degree 409 (K-409/B-409) :

$p(t)=t^{409}+t^{87}+1$

Degree 571 (K-571/B-571) :

$p(t)=t^{571}+t^{10}+t^5+t^2+1$

SECG

SECG 在 SEC2 中定义了若干的曲线,其中一部分和上面的 NIST 是同一个曲线。首先是基于素数域的:

NIST SEC OID ANSI
nistp192 secp192r1 1.2.840.10045.3.1.1 prime192v1
secp192k1 1.3.132.0.31
nistp224 secp224r1 1.3.132.0.33
secp224k1 1.3.132.0.32
nistp256 secp256r1 1.2.840.10045.3.1.7 prime192v7
secp256k1 1.3.132.0.10
nistp384 secp384r1 1.3.132.0.34
secp384k1
nistp521 secp521r1 1.3.132.0.35
secp521k1

然后是基于 $GF(2^m)$ 域的:

NIST SEC OID
nistk163 sect163k1 1.3.132.0.1
sect163r1 1.3.132.0.2
nistb163 sect163r2 1.3.132.0.15
nistk233 sect233k1 1.3.132.0.26
nistb233 sect233r1 1.3.132.0.27
sect239k1 1.3.132.0.3
nistk283 sect283k1 1.3.132.0.16
nistb283 sect283r1 1.3.132.0.17
nistk409 sect409k1 1.3.132.0.36
nistb409 sect409r1 1.3.132.0.37
nistk571 (RFC 5656写的是 nistt571) sect571k1 1.3.132.0.38
nistb571 sect571r1 1.3.132.0.39

sec 命名里,第四个字符里 $p$ 表示是素数域,$t$ 表示是 $GF(2^m)$ 域。 后面的字母表示的 $k$ 表示 Koblitz,$r$ 表示 random,是参数的选取方式。

OID 有两种前缀:

1.3.132.0.x:
iso(1) identified-organization(3) certicom(132) curve(0)
1.2.840.10045.3.1.x:
iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) 10045 curves(3) prime(1)

ANSI

ANSI 也有 X9.62 标准,在附录里面也定义了若干个曲线。附录 J.5.1 里面有三个例子,就是 prime192v1 prime192v2 和 prime192v3,之后则是 prime239v1 prime239v2 prime239v3 和 prime256v1 。

ANSI 别名 OID
prime192v1 nistp192/secp192r1 1.2.840.10045.3.1.1
prime192v2 1.2.840.10045.3.1.2
prime192v3 1.2.840.10045.3.1.3
prime239v1 1.2.840.10045.3.1.4
prime239v2 1.2.840.10045.3.1.5
prime239v3 1.2.840.10045.3.1.6
prime256v1 nistp256/secp256r1 1.2.840.10045.3.1.7

总结

对于同一个曲线,不同的组织给出了不同的名字,见下表:

OpenSSL NIST SECG ANSI
prime192v1 nistp192 secp192r1 prime192v1
secp224r1 nistp224 secp224r1
prime256v1 nistp256 secp256r1 prime256v1
secp384r1 nistp384 secp384r1
secp521r1 nistp521 secp521r1
sect163k1 nistk163 sect163k1
sect163r2 nistb163 sect163r2
sect233k1 nistk233 sect233k1
sect233r1 nistb233 sect233r1
sect283k1 nistk233 sect283k1
sect283r1 nistb283 sect283r1
sect409k1 nistk409 sect409k1
sect409r1 nistb409 sect409r1
sect571k1 nistk571 sect571k1
sect571r1 nistb571 sect571r1

在 RFC4492 里也可以看到一个类似的表。

comments powered by Disqus